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北美经济学作业代写:私有化和贷款

在世界银行(World Bank)对公共部门企业(尤其是非洲企业)的表现表示不满之后,私有化成为多数国际贷款机构的警告。私有化被视为维持公共部门改革项目收益的一种方式,因为它很难逆转。。世界银行还断言,提供电力、水和电信等公用事业需要巨大的投资。私有化提供了一种方式,使大部分资金来自私营部门。此外,私营部门的发展应通过征税和出售资产,以及通过减少对公用事业提供投资的义务,增加国家的收入。认为,私营部门的发展确实有助于经济增长,这是减轻贫困的先决条件,但并不能保证私有化会导致私营部门的发展。尽管如此,Bayliss(2002)认为私有化仍然可以显著影响贫困,因为私有化通常是与援助资金发放挂钩的条件。世界银行和国际货币基金组织(IMF)等国际金融机构历来忽视私有化对贫困的影响。考虑到这些机构曾经倡导的结构性调整计划中私有化的重要性,这种贫穷的轻微影响是值得注意的;旨在减轻穷国和债台高筑国家经济负担的项目。

北美经济学作业代写:私有化和贷款

Privatisation became the caveat of most international lending institutions, after the World Bank voiced dissatisfaction with the performance of public sector enterprises, especially those of Africa. Privatisation became seen as a way to sustain the gains from public sector reform programs, because of how difficult it is to reverse. (Bayliss, 2002).The World Bank (2000, p. 144) also assert that the provision of utilities such as power, water, and telecommunications requires immense investment. Privatisation provides a means for much of this funding to come from the private sector. Additionally, private sector development should lead to increased revenues accruing to the state, through taxation and the sale of assets, as well as through the reduction of the obligation to invest in utilities provision.Bayliss (2002) posits that private sector development indeed aids economic growth, which is a prerequisite for poverty alleviation, but claims there is no guarantee that Privatisation would lead to private sector development.Nonetheless, Bayliss (2002) posits that Privatisation can yet significantly impact poverty, because of it usually being a condition tied to aid funding release.International financial institutions such as the World Bank and the IMF (International Monetary Fund) have historically ignored poverty impacts of Privatisation. This poverty impacts slight is noteworthy, given the prominence of Privatisation in the structural adjustment programs these institutions once championed; programs aimed at alleviating the economic burdens of poor and heavily indebted countries.

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