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执行运动所需的信息,特别是熟练的动作。失用症早期考虑到Hugo Liepmann在1908。他基本上观察到的情况下,无序行动。他做出的解释对失用进行即使今天研究的直接影响(戈登伯格,2008)。利普曼结合证据的各种形式使之适合或创建了一个新的理论语境(戈登伯格,2008)。利普曼汇集了“传闻证据有缺陷的交际手势”(戈登伯格,2008,p.323)和工具,那些遭受脑损伤的人通过系统的方法,并指出可能的失语症患者的临床表现(戈登伯格,2008)。最后,Hugo Liepmann提出了一个电机控制理论的概念(戈登伯格,2008)。他说,apraxics有认知地图所想/应该做但不能改变他们的想法付诸行动,因此失用(戈登伯格,2008)。他进一步认为,这种能力是由于失去了能力转换成动作的电机命令(戈登伯格,2008)。此外,利普曼建议,失语和失用的发生是相互独立的(戈登伯格,2008)但很少研究在一组比较患者的左半球,右半球损伤进行了他认为左半球控制电机,是故意的性质起着至关重要的作用。它在电机控制中的作用远大于它在控制语音(戈登伯格,2008)中的作用。之前,Hugo Liepmann,芬克恩堡德国科学家试图了解失用症。在一个非常有影响力的出版芬克恩堡,他形容为“认知理性”性(戈登伯格,2008,p.323)。他还引用失用症是失语的“明显加重(戈登伯格,2008,p.323)。应该指出的是,虽然Hugo Liepmann在1908奠定了认识的基础上,进行进一步的研究但他的概念失用症失用症不能被视为黄金标准了解疾病。


Abstract: According to Heilman and Rothi, 1993 as stated in Goldenberg, 2008, p.323, “Apraxia is a disorder of skilled movement not caused by weakness, akinesia, differentiation, abnormal tone or posture, movement disorders such as tremors or chorea, intellectual detoriation, poor comprehension or uncooperativeness.” Apraxia results from abnormal functioning of cerebral hemispheres with special respect to parietal lobe (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2010). Apraxia has many types and forms and various notions have been postulated about it regarding its cause. The essay attempts to know in greater depth what is Apraxia, its types, causes, prognosis, treatment and direction of research to be done in this respect in future.

information required to perform movements’ especially skilled movements. The early account of apraxia is taken down by Hugo Liepmann in 1908. He basically observed cases of disordered action. The account made by him has direct influence on research on apraxia which is conducted even today (Goldenberg, 2008). Liepmann combined evidences of all forms to make them fit or created a novel theoretical context (Goldenberg, 2008). Liepmann brought together the “anecdotal evidence of defective use of communicative gestures” (Goldenberg, 2008, p.323) and tools for aphasics of people who have suffered from a brain injury through a systematic approach and pointed out possible clinical manifestations (Goldenberg, 2008). So finally, Hugo Liepmann proposed a theoretical concept of motor control (Goldenberg, 2008). He stated that apraxics have a cognitive map of what they want to / supposed to do but cannot transform their thoughts into actions, hence apraxia (Goldenberg, 2008). He further suggested that this inability can be due to loss of ability to convert the motor commands into actions (Goldenberg, 2008). Furthermore, Liepmann suggested that the occurrence of aphasia and apraxia are independent of each other (Goldenberg, 2008) but few researches conducted in a group comparing patients with right hemisphere damage with the left hemisphere made him to postulate that left hemisphere plays a crucial role in controlling motor which are deliberate in nature. Its role in motor control is much more than its role in controlling speech (Goldenberg, 2008). Before, Hugo Liepmann, Finkelnburg a German scientist attempted to understand apraxia. In a very influential publication of Finkelnburg, he described apraxia as “perceived intellect” (Goldenberg, 2008, p.323). He also cited apraxia to be an “obvious aggravation of aphasia” (Goldenberg, 2008, p.323). It should be noted that, although, Hugo Liepmann in 1908 laid down the foundation for understanding and conducting further research on apraxia but his concepts about apraxia can’t be considered as gold standard to understand the disease.



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