One can see that assigning responsibility alone can neither be accurate or helpful. You have to realize that accountability also comes into play when attempting to find the root of the problem. They are one in the same. There is a difference between responsibility and accountability. The teachers, administrators, parents, community, and even the children are responsible for student learning. This responsibility stems from the fact that there is an obligation on the part of all of those parties to ensure student learning, and in the sense that those parties all contribute to some extent to student learning. But the teachers and school system administrators can be held accountable for student learning based on the fact that public school systems are created and publicly funded to produce student learning as a specific outcome.When I think in terms of the level of "responsibility" that a school has for student learning, I sometimes think in terms of a zero-sum game between school and parents, but maybe that's too simplistic a formulation.For example, let's say that Child A fails most of his classes for the year-who's responsible? One way to calculate the responsibility is to say that, well, Child A lived with a single parent, he never worked very hard, he missed a lot of days over the course of the year, his parent never helped him with his homework, and he never took advantage of after-school tutoring opportunities, so his failure is 75% his and his parent's responsibility. On the other hand, his failure is only 25% the responsibility of his teacher and school, because they offered the opportunity for a good education; Child A just didn't take advantage of that opportunity.