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那是1945年的春天,第二次世界大战的结果是决定性的。德国投降了,希特勒自杀了。此外,意大利已经开始向盟国的外交官们详细说明投降的细节。然而,日本拒绝投降。即使在美国在冲绳岛和硫磺岛取得决定性胜利后,日本天皇裕仁(Hirohito)拒绝屈服于盟友的要求“无条件投降”。“日本的挑衅行为迫使美国总统杜鲁门做出了其总统任期内最重要的决定:是否下令入侵日本本土或使用原子弹。”杜鲁门总统经过几个月的慎重考虑,和他的国务卿亨利·斯廷森(Henry Stimson)多次会晤,决定在广岛和长崎使用原子弹。这个决定涉及四个主要理由:使用原子弹结束战争最早成功可能的时刻,它将实现与苏联的外交收益不断增长的竞争,它将满足美国对日本的仇恨,它将满足美国人需要的轰炸珍珠港报仇。


It was spring of 1945, and the Second World War was coming to a decisive conclusion. Germany had surrendered, and Hitler had committed suicide. In addition, Italy had begun working out the details of its surrender with Allied diplomats. Japan, however, refused to surrender. Even after the decisive American victories at Okinawa and Iwo Jima, Japan’s Emperor, Hirohito, refused to give in to the Ally’s demand for “unconditional surrender.” Japan’s defiance forced United States’ President Harry Truman to make the most important decision of his presidency: whether to give the order to invade the Japanese mainland or use the atomic bomb. President Truman, after many months of careful consideration and countless meetings with his Secretary of War Henry Stimson, decided to use the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This decision involved four major justifications: use of the atomic bomb would end the war successfully at the earliest possible moment, it would achieve diplomatic gains in the growing rivalry with the Soviet Union, it would satisfy America’s hatred of the Japanese and it would satisfy the need for Americans to avenge the bombing of Pearl Harbor.


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