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The educational literature has a great deal of research concerning the traditional student exchange programs between international universities as well as study abroad, and dual degree programs, yet there is little about the development and operation of jointly developed and operated degree programs. The dual degree programs in the literature tend to be collaborations where one of the universities offers the degree (typically the U.S. partner) and the other school provides students. In many cases these dual degree programs allow the students of either school to transfer a specific number of courses into the other degree and to take courses at each school. But the students are usually considered degree seeking at the dominant partner in the relationship What needs to be looked at is how we develop and ensure that both the U.S. school and the school in the other country is a full and equal partner in the collaboration. One such partnership that seems to signal such a change is the joint partnership between the British Council and the nation of Brazil. In an article describing this partnership Canto and Hannah (2001) stated that “(e)quality in the provision of funds has a practical and symbolic significance …, signifying that this is a collaboration that sets out to replace traditional north-south relationships of donor and recipient with genuine academic partnerships” (p. 27.) What the authors were trying to say and what seems to be needed in developing such international collaborations is that there is a need for mutual respect and participation where both organizations bring similar or complementary skills and resources to the table as opposed to the traditional model which typically has the U.S. or European university providing the actual educational opportunities at the U.S. school with the majority of the students coming from the other country.


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