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尽管“反思”一词在Schon的研究之后变得流行起来,但它的根源却延伸到了约翰·杜威(John Dewey)身上。杜威。声称在提供开发过程中积极主动地与有问题的情况进行接触的重要性。根据杜威的观点,他将反思定义为“对任何信念或假设的知识形式的积极、持久和仔细的考虑,基于支持它的基础和它倾向于形成反思思维的进一步结论”。反思不包括一系列的步骤或程序供教师使用。更确切地说,它是一种整体的方式来满足和回应问题,一种作为老师的方式。正如他所指出的,反思涉及直觉、情感和激情,并不是一种可以整齐地包装成一套教师使用的技巧(p。你给了页码什么是报价?)杜威(1933)认为个人应该有三个侧面来反映;思想开放,责任心强,心地善良。这些都意味着对新思想和新思想的开放态度,意识到自己行动的意义和后果,以及充分参与新思想并积极寻找新思想的能力。他进一步阐述了由四部分组成的经验反思循环,展示了经验、描述、解释和行动之间的关系。罗杰斯。Dewey提出的四个反思标准如下:你是直接从你的第二次参考中得到这个的吗?还是你改述了。


Although the term reflection became popular after the studies of Schon, the roots of the term extend to John Dewey. Dewey.claimed the importance of active and deliberate engagement with problematic situations in providing development. He defined reflection as an “Active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends constitutes reflective thought” According to Dewey. reflection does not consist of a series of steps or procedures to be used by teachers. Rather, it is a holistic way of meeting and responding to problems, a way of being as a teacher. As he stated, reflection involves intuition, emotion, and passion and is not something that can be neatly packaged as a set of techniques for teachers to use (p.9 you give the page number what where is the quote?). Dewey (1933) believed that an individual should to have three profiles in order to reflect; being open-minded, responsible and whole-hearted. These imply openness to new ideas and thoughts, being aware of the meaning and consequences of one’s actions and the capacity to fully engage with new ideas and actively seek them out respectively. He further stated the four-part experiential-reflective cycle showing the relationship between experience, description, interpretation, and action. Rodgers. characterized Dewey’s four criteria for reflection as follows: Did you take this directly from your second reference? Or did you paraphrase them.


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