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无论使用的教学方法,许多研究表明,达到关键阶段1比学校更依赖于其他因素组织和教学方法,因为背景因素(如性别、年龄、社会经济地位)导致个体的可能性程度,变化的期望和学习的动机(萨蒙斯et al .,1997)。这些发现似乎表明,实际的教学方法在决定学习结果时往往不重要,因为其他因素对孩子的教育成就的影响远远超过孩子在课堂上所采用的教学方法。早就知道,例如,父母在孩子的教育可以转换输入到高等教育的成就,被认为是由于这样的事实,这鼓励支持和促进信心,然后转化为高等教育成就(见,例如,Hoover-Dempsey和砂光机,1995年,克里和谢里丹,2001),不仅为“能力”的孩子,而且对于那些有特殊需要的孩子,这些有天赋的孩子或有身体或精神残疾的孩子会影响他们的学习能力。


Whatever the teaching method employed, many research studies have shown that attainment at Key Stage 1 is more dependent on factors other than school organisation and teaching methods, because background factors (such as gender, age, socioeconomic status) lead to variations in individual possibilities for attainment, in terms of expectations and motivations for learning (Sammons et al., 1997). These findings seem to suggest that the actual teaching method is often unimportant in determining learning outcomes as other factors have far more of a hold over a child’s educational achievements than the particular teaching method that is employed in the classroom the child attends. It has long been known, for example, that parental input in to a child’s education can convert in to higher educational achievement, thought to be due to the fact that this encouragement enables and facilitates confidence, which then translates to higher educational achievement (see, for example, Hoover-Dempsey and Sander, 1995 and Christenson and Sheridan, 2001), not only for ‘able’ children but also for those children with special needs, be these gifted children or children with physical or mental disabilities affecting how they are able to learn


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