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When it comes to explaining speech acts Searle suggests three different concepts; rules, prepositions and meaning. He was particularly interested in the illocutionary act of promising performatives and so set out to describe these concepts based on the conditions of this performance of promising. As part of his theory of a rule-governed language Searle made a distinction between regulative and constitutive rules. In his book “An essay of philosophy of language” he states that “regulative rules regulate independently existing forms of behaviour… but constitutive rules do not merely regulate, they create or define new form of behaviour” (Searle,1969). For example, take the rules of American football; the touchdown rule is constitutive versus the no taunting rule which is regulative. A second concept, prepositions, provide the content of the illocutionary act which can be used in different types of acts. For example, “Lucy will you sit down” “Lucy, sit” “would you sit down Lucy?” all provide the same prepositional content even though they are different forms of illocutionary acts. In terms of meaning, Searle revised the ideas of Grice and proposed modification in insisting that not only is meaning rooted in the speaker’s intentions but also by a matter of convention (Searle,1969). Based on his ideas one can say that the speaker initially intends for the hearer to recognize his/her intention to produce that lectionary affect and secondly, he/she intends that this is indicated by the hearers understanding of the meaning words used in the context.  These intentions can only act jointly with conventions of words for affective communication (Elswyk,2014).


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