加拿大环境资源论文代写 小岛屿

小岛屿发展中国家(SIDS)地势低洼,特别容易受到GMSL上升的影响。风暴潮威胁着基础设施,增加了海水淹没的风险,从而污染了岛屿的淡水和灌溉供应(Storlazzi et al., 2015),使岛屿上的居民没有食物和水。此外,Kopp等人(2015)的经验证据表明,由于GMSL上升和水文气象事件,北卡罗来纳州风暴潮的震级和频率可能增加,因此在2050年后,每10年发生1次洪水,每100年发生4-5次洪水。海平面100米以内的土地上居住着超过1亿人(Douglas & Peltier, 2002);因此,GMSL的上升和相关的洪水是显著的。Bittermann等人(2017)认为,全球变暖的现状将对海洋产生长期影响,2100年后仍需实施海岸管理。上述个案研究只局限于局部地区,但其广泛性显示未来全球沿海岸风暴潮将会增加。虽然未来海洋储存碳的能力尚不可知,但人们认为温度升高可能会降低海洋的碳储存能力(Holden et al., 2018)。因此,基于当前温度和碳吸收率的“高可信”上升(IPCC, 2018),大多数沿海地区都将感受到洪水。综上所述,可见海洋在水圈变化的影响中发挥着突出的作用。

加拿大环境资源论文代写 小岛屿

Being low-lying, Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are particularly vulnerable to GMSL rise. Storm surges threaten infrastructure, and increase the risk of salt-water inundation, which contaminates the islands’ freshwater and irrigation supplies (Storlazzi et al., 2015), rendering the islands’ populations without food or water. Additionally, empirical evidence from Kopp et al., (2015) suggests that higher magnitudes and frequency of storm surges in North Carolina are likely to increase from GMSL rise and hydro-meteorological events, so after 2050 1-in-10 year floods occur annually and 4-5 1-in-100 year floods occur each century. Land within 1m of sea level houses more than 100 million people (Douglas & Peltier, 2002); so GMSL rise and associated flooding is significant. Bittermann et al., (2017) argue that the present conditions of global warming will have a long-term effect on the oceans so that coastal management will still need implementing beyond 2100. The above case studies are localised, but their wide spatiality indicates a future global increase of storm surges along coasts. Although the future ability of the oceans to store carbon is unknown, it is thought that increased temperatures may decrease its carbon-storage capacity (Holden et al., 2018). Therefore, based on ‘high confidence’ rise in current temperature and carbon absorption rates (IPCC, 2018), flooding will be felt in most coastal areas. Based on the above, it is clear that the oceans play a prominent role in the effects of hydrosphere change.

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