加拿大教育学论文代写 分组策略

在课堂中使用分组策略的最大好处之一是学生学会在合作学习小组中工作。合作学习小组消除了学生之间的竞争,取而代之的是合作(Lou et al. 2000)。孩子们不仅要对自己的学习负责,也要对自己小组的学习负责。孩子们学会相互依赖地工作,学会让彼此和自己对完成工作负责。当孩子的能力开始下降时,就鼓励学生之间的同伴帮助。Gutierrez(2002)发现学生之间的互动更有意义,并且能更好地预测学生的成就。在这些合作的小团体中,孩子们被鼓励去帮助他们的同伴。Lou et. Al(2000)指出,当群体被一个共同的目标团结在一起时,学生很可能会互相帮助学习并达到目标。这些小团体对学习英语的学生尤其有益。这些小组的合作意味着同学和朋友更有可能在活动中帮助他们的朋友。Blum-Kulka和Snow(2004)发现,这些基于朋友的同伴互动有助于帮助学生,因为他们能对基于语言和内容的错误提供快速和必要的反馈。这些同龄人可以成为年轻的厄尔学生语言习得和一般内容知识的重要资源。当ELL的学生和他们的同龄人配对时,他们就可以和一个懂更多英语的人一起工作,这个人可以作为他们的专家向他们解释内容。布鲁克斯和瑟斯顿(2010)发现,当这些孩子与老师一起工作时,他们会成功,而与知识更渊博的同伴一起工作有助于学生学习更多的英语。这个想法与维果斯基的最近发展区的哲学,魔法学生同行专家提供帮助的学生的水平,帮助他们更加独立,因为他们掌握新的语言(分组在一个类对l形的学生和他们的non-ELL同学都有好处。小组教学使教师能够快速、轻松地调整他们的教学以适应学生的需要。这种个性化的关注对于ELL学习者来说是至关重要的,因为他们在学习驾驭英语语言的同时也掌握了新的数学概念。其中一些分组技术包括能力分组。但是,Kulik和Kulik(1992)发现,能力分组对儿童的自尊或学业成绩没有破坏性影响。Blum- Kulka和Snow(2004)也发现,强学习者和弱学习者都有利于这种类型的小组学习。能力分组可以让孩子更成功地参与到关于特定数学话题的认知讨论中(Lou et al. 2000)。当孩子们被安排在成绩好坏参半的小组时,他们往往很难进行双面讨论,因为在这个问题上,孩子们可能比其他人对这个问题有更好的理解。当其中一个孩子对英语的理解程度较低,不能积极参与数学讨论时,这种情况就会特别棘手。这些讨论,无论是用英语还是其他语言,都为孩子们提供了充足的机会,不仅可以解释他们对一个话题的理解,还可以就一个他们不理解的话题向同龄的孩子提问。这些互动对英语的发展起着重要的作用。社交语言是在学术语言之前习得的,这些讨论让厄尔的学生练习了两种技能。

加拿大教育学论文代写 分组策略

One of the biggest benefits of using grouping strategies within a classroom is that students learn to work in cooperative learning groups (Gutierrez, 2002). Cooperative learning groups eliminate competition between students and replace it with cooperation (Lou et al. 2000). The children become responsible for not only their own learning, but that of their group mates. Children learn to work interdependently and learn to hold each other and themselves accountable for completing the work. When children begin to fall short, peer helping is encouraged between the students. Gutierrez (2002) found that student-to-student interactions were more meaningful and were a better predictor of the students’ achievement. Children are encouraged to assist their peers when working in these cooperative small groups. Lou et. Al (2000) points out that when groups are united by one common goal, students are likely to help each other to learn and reach the goal.These small groups can be especially beneficial for English Language Learning (ELL) students. The cooperation in these groups means that classmates and friends are more likely to assist their ELL friends during the activities. Blum-Kulka and Snow (2004) found that these friend based peer interactions were helpful to ELL students as they provided quick and essential feedback on language and content based mistakes. These peers can be a great resource for young ELL students in language acquisition and general content knowledge. When ELL students are paired together with their peers they are able to work with someone who knows more in English who can work as their expert to explain the content to them. While these children can be successful when working with a teacher, Brooks and Thurston (2010) have found that working with a more-knowledgeable peer helps ELL students learn more English. This idea works with Vygotsky’s philosophy of the Zone of Proximal Development in that the ELL students’ peers are the experts that provide help at the student’s level and help them to become more independent as they master the new language (Grouping within a class benefits both ELL students and their non-ELL classmates. Small groups allow teachers to quickly and easily adapt their instruction to fit the needs of their students (Chorzempa & Graham, 2006). This individualized attention can be crucial for ELL learners as they learn to navigate the English language while also mastering new math concepts (Garret & Hong, 2015). Some of these grouping techniques include ability grouping. While there is a negative connotation with ability grouping, but, Kulik and Kulik (1992) have found that ability grouping has no devastating effects on children’s self-esteem or academic achievement. Blum- Kulka and Snow (2004) have also found that both strong and weak learners benefit this type of group learning. Ability grouping allows children to engage more successfully in cognitive discussions about specific math topics (Lou et al. 2000). When children are placed in groups with mixed achievement levels, it is often hard for them to have two-sided discussions because on child may have a better understanding of the topic than the other. This can be especially tricky when one of the children has less understanding of the English language and cannot participate actively in a math discussion. These discussions, whether in English or other languages provide ample opportunities for children to not only explain what they understand about a topic, but also to ask their peers questions about a topic that they do not understand. These interactions play an important role in the development of English for an ELL student. Social language is acquired before academic language and these discussions allow ELL students to practice both skill sets 。

以上段落摘自网络,并非本站提供的论文片段。请勿直接复制,必100%剽窃。仅供参考,如果代写服务请添加客服微信/QQ 竭诚为您服务!