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加拿大经济学作业代写:历经济环境

在上述每一个案例中,在私有化之前都要经历经济环境的考验。这种情况对所有三种情况下的服务机会和质量都有影响,并对财政产生影响,智利的巨额补贴就是一个例子。在上述三种情况下,政府私有化的理由都围绕着提高效率、减轻财政负担和为扩张寻求必要的投资资本。这三个国家在开始私有化之前都谨慎地确保有适当的管理基础设施,以便始终有一个监督机构确保公平,并为效率和业绩提供奖励。这一监管步骤符合Birdsall和Nellis(2003)以及Bayliss(2002)的建议。实施这些监管制度并不是一项没有成本的任务;以阿根廷为例,它付出了400万美元和两年的代价。然而,从大局来看,这只是一个小小的代价。在所有这三种情况下,国家都有意优化资产剥离的收入;每个国家都采取了竞争的过程来完成销售。由于它涉及进入,每个国家再次通过使用销售合同,确保最贫困人口的利益不服从于私有制的利润利益。这些合同规定了具体的扩大目标,以便确保更多地进入较贫穷的社区。然而,正如Birdsall和Nellis(2003)所概述的,在智利的经验中,对农村人口继续被排斥在外的担忧是显而易见的。

加拿大经济学作业代写:历经济环境

In each of the aforementioned cases, trying economic circumstances preceded Privatisation. The circumstances bore implications on access to, and quality of service in all three cases, as well as fiscal implications, as seen with the enormous subsidies in the case of Chile. In all three cases, the governments’ rationale for Privatisation centred around increasing efficiency, reducing fiscal burden, and pursuing the needed investment capital for expansion. All three countries were prudent in ensuring regulatory infrastructure was in place before embarking on Privatisation, so that there would always be a watchdog to ensure equity prevailed, and incentives for efficiency and performance were provided. This regulatory step was in line with the recommendation of both Birdsall and Nellis (2003) and Bayliss (2002). The implementation of these regulatory regimes wasn’t a costless task; in the case of Argentina, it came at a price of US4 million and two years. However, it was a small price to pay in the grand scheme of things.The state’s intention to optimize revenues from the divestitures was evident in all three cases; each country undertook a competitive process to effect the sale.As it pertains to access, again each country ensured that the interest of the poorest wasn’t subordinated to private ownership’s profit interests, through the use of sale contracts. These contracts stipulated specific expansion targets, so as to ensure increased access, moreso to poorer communities. However, the concern of continued rural exclusion to access, as outlined by Birdsall and Nellis (2003), was evident in the Chilean experience.

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