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基本立法,导致当前责任运动是林登·约翰逊总统的初等和中等教育法案(1965年ESEA)。强调责任进一步加强了乔治•布什(George w . Bush)总统的不让一个孩子掉队法案》(NCLB)在2001年。事实上,NCLB的经验数据驱动的重点要求制裁学区为未能满足测试成绩的要求(2007年-霍林)规定这项立法。的第一步理解潜在的高风险测试之间的相关性和辍学是定义高风险测试。Cortiella(2010)指出,测试确定一个高中文凭的标准被定义为高风险的测试,因为它们影响学生。学生们举行单独负责他们在这些类型的表现评估。在回应公众需求更多的高技能的高中毕业生,NCLB法案的要求,国家已经开发出一种等多种政策高风险退出考试(约翰逊,Thurlow胖胖&画眉鸟类,2007)。有鉴于此,Amrein和柏林(2002)研究了“高风险”问责,因为它涉及到这些全州考试。他们发现,学生的学习主要是限制在全州考试的内容在国家高度高风险测试。进一步的研究表明,某些群体的学生,学生接受特殊教育服务等的影响超过其他学生通过这些考试。


One of the fundamental pieces of legislation that led to the current accountability movement was President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in 1965. The emphasis on accountability was further strengthened by President George W. Bush’s No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2001. In fact, NCLB’s empirical data driven focus requires sanctions to school districts for failure to meet test score requirements (Hollingsworth, 2007) mandated by this legislation. The first step in understanding the potential correlation between high-stakes testing and dropout is defining high-stakes tests. Cortiella (2010) stated that tests which determine a standard for a high school diploma are defined as high-stakes tests because they are attached to consequences for students. Students are held individually accountable for their performance on these types of assessments.In response to public demand for more highly-skilled high school graduates and the requirement of NCLB legislation, states have developed a variety of policies such as high-stakes exit exams (Johnson, Thurlow, Stout & Mavis, 2007). With this in mind, Amrein and Berliner (2002) studied “high stakes” accountability as it relates to these statewide exams. They found that student learning was primarily limited to the content of statewide exams in states that attached high-stakes to their testing. Further research showed that some groups of students, such as students receiving special education services, are impacted more than other students by these exams.


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