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这些装饰精美的中国纸很可能是从帖木儿和他的继任者以及明朝皇帝之间的众多大使馆交换到伊朗的礼物。例如,1413年,一支来自帖木儿大陆的商队带着礼物来到南京,送给明朝皇帝永乐。1414年,萨马尔罕收到了皇帝的回访礼物,其中包括素色和有图案的丝绸。波斯消息人士提到另一个中国大使馆于1417年4月抵达,带来了猎鹰、锦缎、瓷器和纸张等礼物(布莱尔,2000年)。伊朗工匠很快开发了他们自己的散斑技术和绘画纸黄金(zaraf ? ? n),和这种技术变得尤为常见收藏家喜欢上了书法标本绑定在一起,并最终画,在专辑中。在装订成书之前,这些大小不一的标本都被装在标准尺寸的花纸上。几位中世纪的作家提出了用从“灰尘”到“粗糙”大小不等的斑点装饰纸张的方法。这张纸先上浆,然后喷上金粒,金粒是用马毛刷或不同细度的筛子碾磨纯金叶子制成的,取决于想要的效果。然后用一块坚硬的石头擦亮纸张,使金子附着在纸上,并产生金属光泽。Simi Nishapuri还提供了制作金、银、青铜和铜悬浮物的配方,这些悬浮物可以涂在装饰纸上.


Such decorated Chinese papers had probably been brought to Iran as gifts from the numerous embassies exchanged between Timur and his successors and the Ming emperors. For example, a caravan of merchants from the Timurid lands arrived in Nanking in 1413 bearing presents for the Ming emperor Yung-lo. The emperor sent a return mission to Samarqand, which arrived in 1414 bearing gifts of plain and patterned silk. Persian sources mention another Chinese embassy arriving in April 1417 bearing gifts of falcons, brocades, porcelains, and paper (Blair, 2000).Iranian artisans soon developed their own techniques for speckling and painting paper with gold (zarafšān), and this technique became particularly common as collectors developed a taste for binding together specimens of calligraphy, and eventually paintings, in albums. The varying-sized specimens were mounted on standard-size sheets of fancy paper before being bound together in books. Several medieval writers give directions for decorating paper with speckles in sizes ranging from “dust” to “coarse.” The paper was first starched, and then sprayed with gold particles, made by grinding pure gold leaf, using either a horsehair brush or sieves of varying degrees of fineness, depending on the effect desired. The paper was then burnished with a hard stone to make the gold adhere and develop its metallic luster. Simi Nishapuri also gives recipes for making suspensions of gold, silver, bronze, and copper that could be painted on decorative papers


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