The extract taken from Luther’s doctrine provides further evidence of opposition to Rome. In the specific extract Luther is attacking the Church’s hierarchy. The clear disapproval of the law, is an obvious example of Luther undermining the church’s authority. Despite Luther’s doctrine attracting the initial attention, evidence suggests that the doctrine was spread via sermons rather than printed works. This factor makes it difficult to know to what extent the average farmer could fully understand the doctrine and begs the question as to what extent Luther’s doctrine led to his popularity in Germany. The evidence of low literacy and very basic theological knowledge suggests that it is unlikely that the theological doctrine produced was responsible for Luther’s widespread popularity.His ideas gained a wide audience through the printing press – there were 390 editions of his writings published in Germany in 1523 alone whilst by 1525, three million copies of pamphlets in German surrounding the ‘Luther Affair’ had been printed. Although the German kingdoms had a high literacy rate for the period, much of the population were illiterate. The urban literacy rate was only 20%. This meant that his doctrine was rarely thought about when purchasing a reproduction of his works. This is where the belief that Luther’s popularity was a by-product of the national interest of printed documents assumes some significance. The initial appeal of Luther’s message was found primarily in the urban communities of Germany. The urban setting provided a concentrated audience, quickly accessible to preaching and pamphlets, as well as a communal structure in which civic reformers could immediately confront the political authorities as fellow citizens rather than distant lords. The ‘Urban Reformation’, however, could only effect a small proportion of the people as only 10% of Germans lived in towns. Many laymen still bought the works without any theological understanding.