加拿大留学生论文代写 路德教义

路德教义的摘录为反对罗马提供了进一步的证据。在具体的摘录中,路德抨击了教会的等级制度。对法律的明显反对,是路德破坏教会权威的明显例子。尽管路德的教义最初引起了人们的注意,但有证据表明,该教义是通过布道而不是印刷作品传播的。这一因素使我们很难知道一般农民在多大程度上能够完全理解这一学说,并回避了路德的学说在多大程度上导致他在德国受欢迎的问题。低文化水平和非常基础的神学知识的证据表明,神学教义的产生不可能是路德广泛流行的原因。他的思想通过印刷得到了广泛的传播——仅在1523年,他的著作就在德国出版了390版,而到1525年,围绕“路德事件”的德语小册子已经印刷了300万册。虽然在[9]时期,德国王国的识字率很高,但很多人都是文盲。城市识字率只有20%。这意味着当购买他的作品的复制品时,他的学说很少被考虑。在这一点上,认为路德的受欢迎是印刷文件的国家利益的副产品的信念具有一定的意义。路德的信息最初的吸引力主要是在德国的城市社区中发现的。城市环境提供了一个集中的听众,可以很快地接触到布道和小册子,以及一个公共结构,在这个结构中,公民改革者可以作为公民而不是遥远的贵族[11]直接面对政治当局。然而,“城市改革”只能影响一小部分人,因为只有10%的德国人生活在[12]城镇。许多门外汉在没有任何神学理解的情况下仍然购买了这些作品。

加拿大留学生论文代写 路德教义

The extract taken from Luther’s doctrine provides further evidence of opposition to Rome. In the specific extract Luther is attacking the Church’s hierarchy. The clear disapproval of the law, is an obvious example of Luther undermining the church’s authority. Despite Luther’s doctrine attracting the initial attention, evidence suggests that the doctrine was spread via sermons rather than printed works. This factor makes it difficult to know to what extent the average farmer could fully understand the doctrine and begs the question as to what extent Luther’s doctrine led to his popularity in Germany. The evidence of low literacy and very basic theological knowledge suggests that it is unlikely that the theological doctrine produced was responsible for Luther’s widespread popularity.His ideas gained a wide audience through the printing press – there were 390 editions of his writings published in Germany in 1523 alone whilst by 1525, three million copies of pamphlets in German surrounding the ‘Luther Affair’ had been printed.[8] Although the German kingdoms had a high literacy rate for the period[9], much of the population were illiterate. The urban literacy rate was only 20%.[10] This meant that his doctrine was rarely thought about when purchasing a reproduction of his works. This is where the belief that Luther’s popularity was a by-product of the national interest of printed documents assumes some significance. The initial appeal of Luther’s message was found primarily in the urban communities of Germany. The urban setting provided a concentrated audience, quickly accessible to preaching and pamphlets, as well as a communal structure in which civic reformers could immediately confront the political authorities as fellow citizens rather than distant lords[11]. The ‘Urban Reformation’, however, could only effect a small proportion of the people as only 10% of Germans lived in towns[12]. Many laymen still bought the works without any theological understanding.