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加拿大留学生论文代写:自由主义

然而,自由主义对自由的看法,无论是积极的还是消极的,都是有问题的。在消极的意义上,人们被允许做任何事情,没有任何后果或限制他们的行动。同样地,从积极的意义上说,人们应该知道什么时候限制自己,很难假设所有的个人都能控制个人。在社群主义的意义上,人们必须包含一些他们的传统和价值观来追求他们的目标。有时候,在做决定的时候有一些指导甚至是有帮助的。因此,在社群主义的意义上,自我“既是多元的,又是特殊的:人的许多特征是由他们出生的社区的主体间价值和传统所塑造的。”“[40]此外,如果传统是错误的,人们就会从他们所处的环境中汲取教训,形成他们认为是正确的新信念;他们自己的信仰并不仅仅存在。举例来说,一个社区可以存在,在那里每个人都有吸烟的习惯。如果一个人认为这种传统是错误的,那么他就会认为这种传统对人们造成了伤害,从而形成了自己的信仰。自由问题也与多元文化主义有关。它涉及多元社会,其中“人口可能来自许多不同的文化背景;各国人民日益强调他们需要一个承认这种差别的国家。[41]虽然自我在社群主义思想中是多元的,但很难说社群中的这些传统是多元的。正如杨所解释的那样,追求平等而忽视差异,将允许“文化帝国主义的发展,允许表达特权群体观点和经验的规范显得中立和普遍”。[42]将一个组视为“其他”组的视图。虽然这是对普遍主义的自由主义思想及其中立性主张的批判,但它也可以通过社群主义的视角进行批判性审视。由于社区主义者强调传统和价值观在社会中的重要性,因此很难就这些传统达成一致。除了他们是对是错之外,一个社会还面临着被群体传统所支配的风险。例如,一个社区主要信仰一种宗教,如果法律法规依赖于这种宗教,那么它就很难保持中立,也很难被人们接受。因此,人民和政府之间将没有社区意识,而是遵守大多数人制定的法律的责任。无论这是不是人民的意愿,仍然需要一些人比另一些人更有能力实现自己的能力。

加拿大留学生论文代写:自由主义

Yet, liberalism’s view of freedom, whether positive or negative, is both problematic. In the negative sense, people are allowed to do anything without any consequences or constraints to their actions. Likewise, in the positive sense, people are expected to know when to limit themselves and it is hard to assume all individuals are able to control infividuals. In the communitarian sense, people would have to include some part of their traditions and values to pursue their goals. Sometimes it is even helpful to have some guidance when making decisions. The self is thus, in the communitarian sense, “both pluralistic and particularistic: many of the features of persons are shaped by the intersubjective values and traditions of the communities into which they are born.” [40] Moreover, if traditions are false, people would draw from the surroundings of their environment to develop new beliefs that they believe is right; their own beliefs do not just exist. To illustrate, a community can exist where everyone smokes as a rule. A person who thinks that this tradition is false would refer to the harm it causes to people to develop his own belief.The issue of freedom is also related to multiculturalism. It deals with pluralistic societies, where “the population may come from many different cultural backgrounds; and peoples are increasingly asserting their need for a state that recognizes this differentiation.” [41] Although the self is pluralistic in the communitarian thought, it is hard to claim that these traditions in the community are pluralistic. As Young explains, seeking equality and ignoring differences would allow for the development of “cultural imperialism by allowing norms expressing the point of view and experience of privileged groups to appear neutral and universal.” [42] A view of a group as the “other” would develop. Although this is a critique towards the liberal idea of universalism and its claim of neutrality, it can also be critically examined through a communitarian perspective. Since communitarians emphasize the importance of traditions and values in a society, it can be difficult to agree on these traditions. Besides them being right or wrong, a society is at risk of having the traditions of on group to dominate over it. If, for instance, one community mainly practices one religion, it would be difficult to be neutral or to have the acceptance of the people if the laws and regulations rely on that religion. Thus, there would be no sense of community between the people and the government, but rather a responsibility to abide by laws that were set by a majority. Whether this is intentional by the people or not, it still entails that some would better be able to achieve their capacities than others.

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