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从那时起,随着每一届新政府的成立,教育及其在国家、政治和经济方面的重要性都发生了巨大的变化;有许多良好的意图,但在我看来,为实现理想的制度而采取的主动行动太少。劳在他的研究《战后年代的教育》(1988)中评论说,支持三分制的政治家们确实认为,这种差别很大的中学制度为处境不利的儿童提供了最好的教育。他们认为建立普遍的中学制度和提高离校年龄是消除阶级差别的关键。人们希望1944年的法案能让更多的工人阶级孩子进入文法学校。1944年法案的主要成就是试图通过将付费学生排除在文法学校之外,将儿童接受的中等教育水平与他们的智力水平联系起来。这样一来,进入文法学校的机会将仅限于那些通过11 +考试的学生,而那些未能通过考试的学生将无法花钱进入文法学校。M桑德森在他的研究“英国的教育机会和社会变化”(1987)中表明,机会的分配比以往任何时候都更接近于能力的分配。然而,在不同的社会阶层中,上文法学校的机会差别仍然很大。工人阶级的儿童接受选择性中等教育的可能性只有专业班儿童的三分之一。


On closer inspection education and its importance in national, political and economic terms have changed a great deal since then with each new government; there have been loads of good intentions, but in my opinion too few initiatives taken to achieve the ideal system.In his study ‘Education in the Post-War Years’ (1988) Lowe comments that politicians who were in favour of the tripartite system genuinely believed that such a differentiated secondary system offered the best education to disadvantaged children. They saw the establishment of a universal secondary school system and the raising of the school leaving age as the key to removing class distinctions. It was hoped that the 1944 Act would lead to a greater flow of working class children to grammar schools.The main achievement of the 1944 Act was the attempt to relate the level of secondary education received by children to levels of their intelligence by excluding the fee-paying pupils from the grammar schools. In this way access to grammar schools would be limited to those who could pass the 11plus and those who failed would not be able to buy their way into the grammar schools. As was shown by M Sanderson in his study ‘Educational opportunity and social change in England’ (1987), the distribution of opportunities was in a much closer relationship to that of ability than ever before. Yet the difference in chances of getting to grammar school remained very wide across the spectrum of social class. Children from the working classes had only a third of the likelihood of selective secondary education of the children from the professional classes.


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