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加拿大留学生作业代写:哲学团体

十七、十八世纪另一个主要的哲学团体是英国古典经验主义者。经验主义者认为所有的知识都来自观察。休谟等英国经验主义者反对笛卡尔提出的直觉/演绎命题和先天知识的观点。休谟认为,真正的知识来自于后天的、感官的经验,而不是先天的。休谟和笛卡尔的一个主要区别在于他们对上帝存在问题的看法。当他们将各自截然不同的理论应用于上帝存在的话题时,得出了不同的结论。在笛卡尔努力怀疑一切的过程中,他意识到只有一件事是确定的,那就是“我思故我在”。笛卡尔认识到,如果他自己受到怀疑,他就是不完美的,不能成为他存在的原因,于是他得出了上帝存在的结论。因为他有一个完美的想法,这个想法必须来自一个完美的存在,或者上帝。然而,休谟无法证明上帝的存在。休谟在创造他的“休谟方法”时,建立在莱布尼茨分析综合区分的基础上。他把思想分为三类:分析命题、综合命题和废话。他提出了一系列的问题,人们可以提出这些问题来得出一个想法属于哪一类的结论。与笛卡尔关于上帝存在的结论相反,休谟方法认为上帝应该被归为“无意义”的类别,因为上帝不可能追溯到感官数据。笛卡尔是理性主义者,休谟是经验主义者。然而,这两位哲学家是相似的,因为他们都提出了非常怀疑的问题。笛卡尔认为一个邪恶的恶魔可能会在我们的头脑中植入思想,休谟认为上帝的观点是“无稽之谈”,这使得人们开始质疑传统的教义以及他们一直认为正确的东西。笛卡尔和休谟提出的新观点后来引起了一些问题,因为随着人们越来越意识到这些观点,人们开始更多地反抗权威和宗教。

加拿大留学生作业代写:哲学团体

The other major philosophical group during the seventeenth and eighteenth century was the classical British empiricists. The empiricists believed that all knowledge is derived from observation. Hume and other British empiricists rejected the intuition/deduction thesis and the idea of innate knowledge proposed by Descartes. Hume believed that true knowledge came from a posteriori, sense experience, rather than from a priori. A major difference between Hume and Descartes is their take on the issue of God’s existence. When the two applied their very different theories to the topic of Gods existence, they arrived at different conclusions. In Descartes efforts to doubt everything, he realized that only one thing was certain, “I think, therefore I exist”. Descartes concluded that God exists when he realized that if he himself is subject to doubt, he is imperfect, and cannot be the cause of his existence. Because he had an idea of perfectness, this idea must come from a perfect being, or God. However, Hume was not able to prove God’s existence. Hume built upon Leibniz’s analytic synthetic distinction in creating his “Humean Method”. He separated ideas into three categories: analytic propositions, synthetic propositions, and nonsense. He created a set of questions that one could ask to come to the conclusion as to what category an idea fell under. In contrast to Descartes conclusions about God’s existence, the Humean method suggests that God should be placed under the “nonsense” category because it is not possible to trace God back to sense data. Descartes, the rationalist and Hume, the empiricist had differing opinions. However, the two philosophers are similar because they both raise very skeptical issues. Descartes idea of the possibility of an evil demon putting thoughts in our heads and Hume’s conclusion that the idea of God is “nonsense” caused people to begin questioning traditional teachings and what they had always thought to be true. New ideas like the ones presented by Descartes and Hume later caused problems because as people became more aware of these ideas, more rebellion from authority and religion began to occur.

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