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加拿大伦敦代写作业:种族隔离时代

自1994年以来,由于种族隔离时代的过渡阶段,南非经历了一个快速向前的政策周期。因此,所有部门的政策设计、立法和政策执行都迅速进行。这种过渡意味着,从种族隔离时代继承下来的许多政策都不适合民主制度。为此,Roux(2002:420)指出,宪法改革已导致政府和行政几乎所有领域的变革和变革。这种变化几乎影响了政府的所有职能领域,从而重新界定了政策制定者和决策者的作用。布里纳德(Brynard, 2005:3)也表达了同样的观点,他认为人们利用了非凡程度的智力和政治能量,来制定符合国家当前需要的公共政策。在政策范围内,南非特别在1995年至1996年期间对各项政策进行了重大审查;布里纳德(2005:3)把这一时期称为“白皮书时代”。Brynard(2000:164-165)进一步指出,1994年以后,民主政府开始了一项积极的政策制定过程,以期消除政府公共政策和法规的歧视。这种情况一直持续到上世纪90年代末。第二个民主政府(1999年至2004年)将重点更多地转移到民主选举的政府政策的执行上,这一政策仍在继续。

加拿大伦敦代写作业:种族隔离时代

Since 1994, South Africa has experienced the policy cycle in a fast-forward mode due to the transition phase from the apartheid era. As a result, policy design, legislation and policy implementation have proceeded rapidly in all sectors. This transition meant that many of the policies that were inherited from the apartheid era were inappropriate for the democratic dispensation. To this effect Roux (2002:420) notes that constitutional reform has led to change and transformation in almost all spheres of government and administration. Such changes affected virtually all the functional fields of government, and consequently redefined the role of policy- and decision-makers. Echoing this sentiment Brynard (2005:3) states that an extraordinary degree of intellectual and political energy was harnessed to generate public policies that would suit the current needs of the State. South Africa, in a policy context, went through a major review of policies especially between 1995 and 1996; Brynard (2005:3) terms this period the ‘White Paper Era’.Brynard (2000:164-165) further states that after 1994, the democratic government embarked on an aggressive process of policy formulation with a view to remove discrimination in the government’s public policy and statute. This continued until the end of 1990s. The second democratic government (1999 to 2004) shifted focus more towards implementation of policies of a democratically elected government, which still continues.

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