When applying these theories and concepts to teams at Starbucks it can be observed that different skills are required for different parts of the operation. Holistic observation of a team working at Starbucks demonstrates the power of team working. Each person has a defined role which they focus upon in order to ensure maximum efficiency and quality of output. For example in any Starbucks outlet one person focuses on taking orders and payments, another one or two (depending on the size of the outlet) focus on making the orders and a further team members is constantly ensuring that the outlet is clean and tidy and well stocked. It can be suggested that this requires a high level of group communication and co-ordination and also a high level of trust as those baristas making the coffee must take on trust the orders given to them by their colleagues. Similarly because two Baristas can work on the same order simultaneously there must be complete understanding and uniformity to the order production process such that they can interchange their roles at any point. Under Tuckman’s model it is clear that a team in Starbucks is at the very least in the “norming” stage of the model and most probably at the “performing” stage. The concept of team work within organisations has gained increasing prominence in recent years and with good reason as highly effective teams are more efficient and productive. Furthermore, Armstrong identifies the benefits of empowering team members within a role so that they feel more engaged with the organisation and therefore more committed to delivering the best possible experience for the customer or client. At Starbucks one means of achieving this would be to ensure that every team member is fully cross-functional and that they are given stretch performance targets which require them to work as a team. Full cross-functionality means that each team member has an appreciation for other roles and therefore they tend to be more considerate of outcomes. Moreover, a cross -functional team which has accountability for its own results will typically find more effective means of delivering a service in order to reach targets.