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加拿大社会学代写paper:自闭症

建议家长和专业人士要有意识,尤其是当孩子在共同注意力和象征性沟通方面表现出缺陷时。共同注意力缺失意味着儿童在“协调人与物之间的注意力”方面存在困难。需要注意的迹象如下:孩子对社交伙伴的反应有问题;孩子不能在人和物体之间转移视线;没有与他人分享情感或情绪;孩子们无法跟随他人的目光,指出或吸引他人的注意力来分享经验。符号使用缺陷的特征是“(a)使用传统手势,(b)理解和使用传统意义的词语,(c)在功能和符号游戏中使用对象”。自闭症儿童不像《联合注意力缺陷》中讨论的那样,使用很多传统的手势,比如挥手、展示或指向,也不使用象征性的手势,比如点头或模仿动作。相反,他们可能会被发现有“特殊的、非常规的或不合适的行为”,比如他们可能很有攻击性,经常发脾气,或者他们可能会伤害自己。自闭症儿童被发现明显使用更多的“非典型发音音节,如尖叫、咆哮和大叫”。对于那些学习说话的自闭症儿童来说,模仿他人说话的模仿语经常出现。自闭症儿童在假装游戏和功能性游戏方面也表现出明显的缺陷。

加拿大社会学代写paper:自闭症

suggest that parents and professionals need to be conscious especially when children seem to show deficits in joint attention and symbolic communication. Deficits in joint attention means children have difficulties in “coordinating attention between people and objects”. Signs to look for are identified as below: children have problem in responding to a social partner; children can’t shift gaze between people and objects; there is no sharing of affect or emotions with other people; children fail to follow other’s gaze, point or draw other’s attention to share experiences. Deficits in symbolic use are characterised by “problems in (a) using conventional gestures, (b) understanding and using conventional meanings for words, and (c) using objects functionally and in symbolic play” (Woods & Wetherby, 2003, p. 181). Children with autism don’t use much of conventional gestures, such as waving, showing or pointing as discussed in the deficits of joint attention, nor symbolic gestures like head nodding or miming actions. Instead, “idiosyncratic, unconventional or inappropriate behaviours” might be detected in them, such as they might be aggressive and throwing tantrums all the time or they might hurt themselves. Children with autism are found to use significantly more “syllables with atypical phonation, such as squeals, growls, and yells” . For those children with autism who does learn to talk, echolalia that is imitating others’ speech is often found. Children with autism also show noticeable deficits in make-believe and functional play .

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