加拿大社会学作业代写 非洲之美

美丽是什么?非洲之美是如何定义的?这些问题的答案取决于我们如何看待它。“情人眼里出西洋相”和“美是肤浅的”这样的说法并不少见,但这些观点在当今世界已经不太适用了,因为在当今世界,美越来越多地以欧洲为中心。这一点在通过媒体传递的信息中表现得尤为明显,这些信息不断地宣传着白皮肤的“美丽”和完美,以及世界各地对皮肤美白产品的高需求。因此,美的概念并不是一成不变的;但是由于内在的——男性对女性——和外在的——全球白人至上——美丽标准的改变。这些新的美容规范包括身体纹身和穿孔、身体手术、身体不同部位的植入物以及皮肤漂白,这是人们感兴趣的话题。皮肤美白,也被称为皮肤美白和皮肤漂白,其特点是使用化妆品使皮肤变白。皮肤美白的历史可以追溯到伊丽莎白时代的粉末和油漆,但目前是不成比例的社区的颜色(Blay, 2009a)。作为一种普遍现象,皮肤美白已经成为全世界人民的一种实践,特别是在非洲各国、非洲侨民和亚洲(Blay, 2011)。在欧洲/白人民族主义的背景下,白人有助于将权力概念化为从特权位置行动的能力,并因此将代表白人的人指定为有权的人(Blay, 2009a)。这也蔓延到美利坚合众国,不分年龄或类,女性使用各种产品一般被称为“纯白的,粉饰和白色化妆品”为了实现模型的脸,这在美国上下文不仅肯定了中产阶级风格,而且种族特权(《1998)。越来越受欢迎的传统与复杂的历史,文化,社会政治和心理力量激励实践的影响和多数学者承认奴役殖民主义的历史和历史因素,最近,全球白人至上作为主要影响皮肤漂白的动机中“有色人种”。

加拿大社会学作业代写 非洲之美

What is beauty? How is African Beauty defined? The answers to these questions are conditional on the lens through which it is perceived. It is not uncommon to hear such phrases like ‘beauty is in the eyes of the beholder’ and ‘beauty is skin deep’, but these sentiments do not hold much ground in today’s world, where beauty is progressively centred around Eurocentric features. This is especially visible in the messages transferred through the media which continually promote the ‘beauty’ and perfection of the white skin and the high demand for skin whitening products as witnessed around the world. Consequently, notions of beauty have not been static; but have changed as a result of both internal- men versus women – and external – global white supremacy- beauty norms. These new beauty norms range from having tattoos and piercings on the body to having body surgeries, implants in different body parts as well as skin bleaching, which is the topic of interest.Skin-lightening, also known as skin whitening and skin bleaching is characterized by the use of cosmetic agents to lighten the complexion of one’s skin. The history of skin whitening can be traced to the Elizabethan age of powder and paint but is currently disproportionately practised in communities of colour (Blay, 2009a). As a universal phenomenon, skin whitening has been a practice among people throughout the world and is particularly present in the countries throughout Africa, Africa Diaspora and Asia (Blay, 2011). Within the context of European/White nationalism, Whiteness contributed to a conceptualization of power as the ability to act from a privileged position and consequently designated those who embodied whiteness as those who had access to power (Blay, 2009a). This also spread to the United States of America, where irrespective of age or class, women used a variety of products generically known as “lily-white, whitewash and white cosmetic” in order to achieve the model face, which in the American context not only affirmed middle-class style but also racial privilege (Peiss, 1998). This increasingly popular tradition has been linked with complex historical, cultural, socio-political and psychological forces as motivating the practice and majority of scholars acknowledge the influence of the history of colonialism and enslavement as historical factors and more recently, global white supremacy as major influences on the motivations for skin bleaching among ‘coloured people’ .

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