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同时,愿意(1988)调查五百一十七名学习者从30多民族研究是否有学习风格偏好和传记变量之间的关系。然而,只有五个民族是足够大的统计分析(越南、中国、阿拉伯、南美和波兰/捷克扬声器)。学习风格问卷包括30学习风格的物品,十五学习策略条目,以及个人传记方面几项。结果表明,有文化差异对学习者的学习风格偏好。例如,虽然意味着项目的“我喜欢学习语法”是低于预期,所有学习者从不同的文化回应说,他们喜欢学习语法。阿拉伯语学习者优先文法,65%的人将这个项目列为“最佳”(1988)。同时,研究结果表明,authority-oriented和分析学习方式被越南高度重视,中国,阿拉伯语,南美,和波兰的学生。最喜欢的礼物是“练习发音和英语发音”和“一切都解释为他们的老师”,和最喜欢的学习方式是“玩游戏”,“看电影”(1988,p . 1988)。愿意(1988)进一步确定了四种类型的学习者:混凝土、分析、交流,authority-oriented学习者。Nunan(1999)简要地总结了这四种类型的学习者的定义:1)混凝土学习者是那些使用非常直接的接受和处理信息的手段;2)分析学习者的认知优势不仅导致他们仔细分析和结构展示极大的兴趣,而是把大量的价值通过执行这些事情本身,揭示他们的独立自主。换句话说,他们更喜欢学习语法(从具体到一般),学习英语书籍和读报纸,单独学习,发现自己的错误,和工作任务分配的问题老师;3)Authority-oriented学习者是那些可能不是倾向于积极组织信息;他们希望他们的老师对他们解释一切,往往有自己的课本,写在一本笔记本,学习语法规则,通过阅读、学习和学习新单词通过观察他们,和4)交际学习者是那些渴望交际和社会学习的方法,可能是因为他们觉得这将是最有利于他们的需求与语言学习的关系。换句话说,他们喜欢通过看学习,听母语,用英语和朋友聊天和看电视英语、使用英语的课程,通过听来学习新单词,学习对话.


Meanwhile, Willing (1988) investigated a group of five hundred and seventeen learners from more than thirty ethnic groups to study whether there is a relationship between learning style preferences and biographical variables. However, only five ethnic groups were large enough for statistical analysis (Vietnamese, Chinese, Arabic, South Americans, and Polish/Czech speakers). The learning style questionnaire included thirty learning style items, fifteen learning strategy items, and a several items on individual biographical aspects. The results indicated that there were cultural differences with regard to the learners’ learning style preferences. For instance, although the means of the item ‘I like to study grammar’ was lower than expected, all learners from the different cultures responded that they liked studying grammar. The Arabic learners preferred grammar where 65% of them ranked this item as the “best” (Willing 1988). Meanwhile, the findings indicated that authority-oriented and analytical learning styles were highly valued by the Vietnamese, Chinese, Arabic, South American, and Polish students. The mostly preferred items were ‘practicing sounds and pronunciation in English’ and ‘everything explained by their teacher’, and the least preferred ways of learning were ‘playing games’ and ‘watching films'(Willing 1988, p. 130). Willing (1988) further identified four types of learners: concrete, analytical, communicative, and authority-oriented learners. Nunan (1999) briefly summarized the definition of these four types of learners: 1) Concrete learners are those who employ very direct means of taking in and processing information; 2) Analytical learners are those whose cognitive strengths lead them not only to analyze carefully and demonstrate great interest in structures but to put a great deal of value on revealing their independence by performing these things themselves, autonomously. In other words, they prefer to study grammar (from specific to general), studying English books and reading newspapers, studying individually, finding their own mistakes, and working on task problems assigned by their teachers; 3) Authority-oriented learners are those who are probably not predisposed to actively organize information; they would like their teacher to explain everything to them, tend to have their own textbooks, to write everything in a notebook, to study grammatical rules, learn by reading, and learn new words by looking at them; and 4) Communicative learners are those who have a desire for a communicative and social learning approach, probably because they feel that this would be most helpful to their needs in relation to language learning. In other words, they like to learn by watching, listening to native speakers, talking to friends in English and watching television in English, using English out of class, learning new words by hearing them, and learning by conversations


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