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管理的概念通常与两平行的术语,即领导和管理。根据布什(2006)的不同,这种差异主要是区域性的,“管理”这个术语在欧洲和非洲都是常用的,在美国、加拿大和美国,“行政”是被看好的。另一方面,“领导”这个术语更为现代,在大多数发达国家都很有兴趣 然而,其他作者区分这三个概念,声称他们有相反的定义。古巴(1988)提供了领导和管理之间的区别,即领导是“影响他人的行动,以达到理想的目的”和管理是“维护有效和有效的当前组织安排”。他还补充说,管理和领导同等重要,他不赋予任何特殊价值,因为他们都需要在不同的情况下,在不同的时间,以便学校能够有效地发挥作用,实现他们的目标(布什2006)。


The concept of management often intersects with two parallel terminologies, namely leadership and administration. The difference is mainly regional according to Bush (2006).The term “Management” is commonly used in Europe, and Africa, where as “administration” is favored in the United States, Canada, and Australia. On the other hand the term “Leadership” is much more contemporary and it is of great interest in most developed countries (Bush 2006).However other authors have differentiated these three concepts by claiming that they have opposing definitions. Cuban (1988) has provided a distinction between leadership and management namely leadership is “influencing others actions in achieving desirable ends” and Managing is “maintaining efficiently and effectively current organizational arrangements”. He also added that both managing and leading are equally important and he confer no special value to either as they are both needed in different situations and at different times in order for schools to function effectively and meet their goals (Bush 2006).


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