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加拿大网课代修:理解周围的世界

皮亚杰(Jean Piaget)设计了一个模型,通过收集和组织与人、物体和思想的经验信息,来解释人类如何理解周围的世界。这被称为认知发展理论。皮亚杰确定了四个因素;成熟,对你的环境采取行动,向他人学习或社会传播,寻找影响思维和知识发展方式的平衡或平衡。他还理论化地指出,所有的物种在适应环境的同时都具有组织思想和行为的倾向。思想和行动的组织,允许一个人在精神上“思考”事件或物体,这被称为计划。知识和思维过程的适应包括吸收或将新信息纳入现有方案,以及改变现有方案以应对新情况或适应新情况。皮亚杰还认为,随着年轻人的成长,他们会经历四个阶段。认知发展的第一阶段,发生在出生到两岁之间,被称为感觉运动阶段。在这个阶段,孩子使用他/她的五种感觉和运动能力去理解他们周围的世界。孩子也会将自己与物体区分开来,并开始朝着目标有意识地行动。物体的持久性也在这个阶段实现。第二阶段被称为术前阶段,发生在2 – 7岁之间。在这个阶段,孩子们开始发展形成和使用符号的能力,并从逻辑上从一个方向思考操作。在此期间,自我中心主义也主导着孩子的思维和语言。认知发展的第三个阶段是7到11岁之间的具体操作阶段。这一阶段的特点是逻辑地解决具体的有形问题的能力,展示守恒的能力,根据特征将物体分类的能力,可逆思维能力,以及根据重量、大小和体积顺序排列物体的能力。认知发展的最后阶段,也就是正式手术,从11岁到成年。在这个最后阶段,青少年变得非常专注于分析他们自己的态度和信念,而不是否认其他人可能有不同的看法。青少年的假设思维能力,考虑所有可能的组合和选择,同时推理推理也是这个阶段的其他特征.

加拿大网课代修:理解周围的世界

Jean Piaget designed a model explaining how humans make sense of the world around them through collecting and organizing information from experiences with people, objects, and ideas. This was called the Theory of Cognitive Development. Piaget identified four factors; maturation, action on your environment, learning from others or social transmission, and searching for a balance or equilibrium that influence the way thinking and knowledge are developed. He also theorized that all species inherit the tendencies to organize thoughts and behaviors while adapting to his/her environment. Organization of thoughts and actions that allow a person to mentally “think about” events or objects are called schemes. Adaption of knowledge and thinking processes involves assimilation or incorporating new information into existing schemes, as well as changing existing schemes to respond to a new situation or accommodating. Piaget also believed that as young people develop they pass through four stages. The first stage of cognitive development, which occurs between the ages of birth to two years, is called the Sensorimotor stage. In this stage, the child uses his/her five senses and motor abilities to comprehend the world around them. The child also distinguishes his/her self from objects and begins to act intentionally towards a goal. Object permanence is also achieved at this stage. The second stage is called the Preoperational stage and occurs between the ages of two to seven years. In this stage, the child begins to develop the ability to form and use symbols as well as think operations through logically in one direction. Egocentrism also dominates the child’s thinking and language during this time. The third stage of cognitive development is between the ages of seven to eleven years is called the Concrete-Operational stage. The characteristics of this stage are the ability to solve concrete tangible problems logically, the ability to demonstrate conservation, the mastery of grouping objects into categories based on characteristics, reversible thinking, and sequentially arranging objects according to weight, size and volume. The final stage of cognitive development, called Formal Operations, occurs from eleven years through adulthood. In this final stage, the adolescent becomes extremely focused on analyzing their own attitudes and beliefs while not denying that others may have different perceptions. The ability of an adolescent to think hypothetically, considering all possible combinations and choices, while reasoning deductively are other characteristics of this stage as well

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