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英国的民主:1815年被认为是英国政治的一个基准,就像其他几个欧洲国家一样,原因很简单,那就是今年看到了它所见过的最伟大的敌人之一拿破仑的力量和影响力的终结。然而,尽管这是对外国的主要问题,但在本世纪,英国也有其内部问题。工业革命带来了国家不得不面对的巨大变化,既有承诺,也有它带来的陷阱。工业革命对国家产生的最重要的社会影响之一是人口的接近激增,以及新兴工业化的弊端,在这个过程中,它没有来自世界任何地方的先行者。因此,当时最优先考虑的是一系列政策,这些政策赋予了国家社会稳定和一些和平的因素。(悉尼,1991年,p . 1)与高人口增长以及随之而来的问题,如高婴儿死亡率是伟大的重点在19世纪早期,(布朗,1991年,p . 30)的空气都卷入了政治问题的机构的英国人所以辛苦建立在过去的世纪是最适合给连贯性的社会改变的速度。在这种环境下,英国政治的重点更多的是在什么样的改革适合社会、政体和经济,而不是哪种形式的政府最适合进行这些改革。保守党和自由主义者之间的意见分歧很大,他们的机构中有哪一个可以为英国带来新的一天。


Democracy in Britain: The year 1815 is considered a benchmark for the politics of Britain, as it was for several other European countries, for the simple reason that this year saw the end of the power and influence of one of the greatest nemeses it ever saw, Napoleon. However, while this was the major issue for the nation externally, Britain had its share of internal problems, as well, during this century. The Industrial Revolution brought in its wake dramatic changes which the nation had to ingest, with both the promises and the pitfalls it spawned. Among the most important social effects the Industrial Revolution had on the nation was a near-explosion in population, and the drawbacks of nascent industrialisation, at which it had no forerunners from any part of the world. Thus, the greatest priority at that time was a set of policies that gave the country social solidity and some element of peace. (McCord, 1991, p. 1) With the high rates of population growth and their attendant problems such as high infant mortality being great priorities during the early part of the 19th century, (Brown, 1991, p. 30) the air of politics was abuzz with the question of which of the institutions the British had so assiduously built up over the previous centuries was best suited to give coherence to the society that was changing at a feverish pace. In this milieu, the emphasis for British politics was more over what kind of reform was suited and needed for the society, polity and the economy, rather than which form of government was best suited to carry these changes out. Opinion was sharply divided among the Conservatives and the Liberals about which of its institutions could carry the day for Britain.


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