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最后一个阶段是正式手术,包括11到15岁的孩子。在这个年龄的孩子有能力进行思维活动,包括抽象思维和逻辑推理。一个11岁或11岁以上的孩子的思维能够进行数学计算,具有创造性,有准确的推理能力,并能想象出具体行动的结果。在分析了皮亚杰的理论之后,我认为他的四个发展阶段和教学结构是紧密相连的。感觉运动阶段与早期基础阶段(EYFS)相适应,儿童主要通过玩耍和探索周围的设施来学习。在学校的托儿所和接待班,孩子们在教室里有各种与现实世界相关的连续供应区域,比如商店、邮局和厨房。这可以让孩子们探索角色扮演和发现真实的生活情况。设置任务,让孩子们自由探索,同时教师观察孩子们参与活动的情况(EYFS, 2010, online)。这与EYFS主题中的“使能环境”原则有关:“环境在支持和扩展儿童的发展和学习方面发挥着关键作用。


The final stage is the formal operations which consist of 11 to 15 year olds. At this age children are capable of mental operations including abstractions and logical reasoning . The mind of a child who is 11 years or older can carry out mathematical calculations, be creative, have accurate reasoning and imagine the outcome of specific actions REF.After analysing Piaget’s theory, I believe that his four stages of development and the structure of teaching is closely linked. The sensorimotor stage fits in to the early years foundation stage (EYFS) where children mainly learn by playing and exploring the facilities around them. In the nursery and reception classes of the school, the children have a variety of continuous provisions areas within the classroom that relate to the real world such as shops, post office and kitchens. This allows the children to explore role play and discover real life situations. Tasks are set up to allow the children to explore freely whilst the teacher observes the children’s involvement in the activity (EYFS, 2010, online). This relates to the principle of ‘enabling environments’ in the EYFS themes: ‘The environment plays a key role in supporting and extending children’s development and learning.


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