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加拿大哲学作业代写:幸福的尺度

边沁意识到应该有某种衡量幸福的尺度。边沁提出了享乐微积分。享乐算法列出了要评估快乐的程度必须注意的七个特征:强度、持续时间、确定性、接近性、繁殖力、纯度和程度。这种规模让我们能够找到导致最大乐趣的行为。然而,在边沁之后又有一位哲学家叫约翰·密尔,他是一个神童,从小就能读好几种语言,是杰里米·边沁的追随者的儿子。也许19世纪最伟大的英国哲学家,密尔认为个人的幸福是最重要的,幸福是最有效地获得个人自由追求自己的结束时,只要他们保持规则,保护所有人的共同利益。当密尔接受了最大利益最大化的效用原则时,他关心的是所提出的困难,比如桥牌操作员的故事。桥牌操作员带着他的儿子和他一起工作。他很高兴地告诉他的小男孩一切都是如何运作的,他的工作是多么重要,因为数百人依靠他来上下这座桥,这样他们就可以安全地从一个地方到另一个地方。当父亲解释他的工作时,小男孩得意地笑了。他也非常钦佩所有控制巨大齿轮的开关。但是在观察了他父亲的工作几个小时后,这个男孩变得很无聊,所以他的父亲让他出去玩。过了一会儿,桥牌操作员意识到,他几乎是时候把桥放下来,以便下午5点的通勤列车可以通过。但是,当他正要拉下可以使桥变低的开关时,他向窗外瞥了一眼,发现他的儿子显然是在爬齿轮;他的脚被卡住了。事实上,他被夹在巨大的齿轮之间;活着,却被困住了,无法解脱。工程师正准备赶紧去帮助他的儿子,这时他听到远处火车的汽笛声。突然,他意识到他没有足够的时间来释放他的儿子,回到控制箱,并降低桥梁及时客运列车安全通过。但如果他拉下开关,把桥拉低,他的小男孩就会被巨大的旋转齿轮压碎,他就会被卷入其中。他被迫做出了一个可怕的选择:要么他的儿子被杀,要么一列火车上的乘客在下面的河里摔死。密尔认为,如果对大多数人来说,最大的好处纯粹是基于快乐和痛苦的数量,而这些快乐和痛苦会阻止一个人的快乐行为。为了解决这个难题,密尔关注的是品质和快乐。他发展了一种更高和更低的快乐系统,喜欢更高的快乐而不是更低的快乐。密尔说过:“做一个不满意的人,好过一只满意的猪;做一个不满意的苏格拉底,好过一个满意的傻瓜。

加拿大哲学作业代写:幸福的尺度

Bentham realised that there should be some sort of scale on which happiness can be judged. Bentham did this by proposing the hedonic calculus. The hedonic calculus lists seven features of pleasure to which attention must be paid in order to assess how great it is: intensity, duration, certainty, propinquity, fecundity, purity, and extent. This scale allows us to find the act which leads to the greatest pleasure. However there was a Philosopher after Bentham called John Mill, John Mill was a child prodigy who was able to read several languages at an early age, and the son of a follower of Jeremy Bentham. Perhaps the greatest British philosopher of the nineteenth century, Mill maintained that the well being of the individual was of greatest importance and that happiness is most effectively gained when individuals are free to pursue their own ends so long as they keep with the rules that protect the common good of all. While mill accepted the utility principle of the greatest good for the greatest number he was concerned about the difficulty raised when for example there is the story of the bridge operator. The bridge operator took his son to work with him. He delighted in telling his little boy how everything worked and how important his job was, since hundreds of people relied on him to raise and lower this bridge so they could travel safely from place to place. The little boy beamed with pride as his father explained his job. He also greatly admired all of the switches that controlled the huge gears. But after a couple of hours of observing his father work, the boy grew bored, so his father sent him out to play. A short while later, the bridge operator realized that it was almost time for him to lower the bridge so the 5 p.m. commuter train could cross. But, as he was about to pull the switch that would lower the bridge, he glanced out the window to see that his son had apparently been climbing on the gears; and his foot was stuck. In fact, he was wedged between the huge gears; alive, but trapped;and unable to free himself. The engineer was about to hurry to help his son when he heard the train whistle in the distance. Suddenly he realized that he did not have sufficient time to free his son, return to the control box, and lower the bridge in time for the passenger train to cross safely. But if he pulled the switch to lower the bridge, his little boy would be crushed in the massive turning gears in which he was entangled. He was forced to make a horrible choice: either his son would be killed, or a trainload of passengers would plunge to their deaths in the river below. Mill thought if the greatest good for the greatest number was purely quantities based on the quantities of pleasure and pain caused what would stop one persons pleasure from that act. To address this difficulty Mill focused on qualities pleasures. He developed a system of higher and lower pleasures preferring the higher pleasures to the lower ones. Mill said “It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied: better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied

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