Philosophy Essay 代写:克隆人类的伦理论争

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Philosophy Essay 代写:克隆人类的伦理论争


科学家们通过用另一个个体来替换卵细胞的细胞核来产生克隆。他们已经克隆出了人类胚胎,但还没有成功地生长的早期阶段,他们过去在实心球的细胞称为桑椹胚,将细胞核的行为可能会扰乱正常的细胞分裂过程中染色体排列的能力。”每当你克隆一个新物种,有一个学习曲线,并与人类是一个严峻的挑战,获得足够的质量好的卵细胞来学习,说:”在Worcester,大规模的先进细胞技术公司的Robert Lanza,谁的头条新闻在2001首次克隆人类胚胎。特别是棘手的步骤包括发现化学品的正确时间和正确的细胞重新编程的混合。(CHOL,2010)







Philosophy Essay 代写:克隆人类的伦理论争

Ever since the birth of Dolly the sheep in 1996, human cloning for reproductive purposes has seemed inevitable. Notwithstanding past dubious claims of such an achievement--including one by a company backed by a UFO cult-- no human clones have been made, other than those born naturally as identical twins. Despite success with other mammals, the process has proved much more difficult in humans--which may strike some people as comforting and others as disappointing.

Scientists generate clones by replacing the nucleus of an egg cell with that from another individual. They have cloned human embryos, but none has yet successfully grown past the early stage where they are solid balls of cells known as morulas--the act of transferring the nucleus may disrupt the ability of chromosomes to align properly during cell division. "Whenever you clone a new species, there's a learning curve, and with humans it's a serious challenge getting enough good-quality egg cells to learn with," says Robert Lanza of Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Mass., who made headlines in 2001 for first cloning human embryos. Especially tricky steps include discovering the correct timing and mix of chemicals to properly reprogram the cell. (Chol, 2010 )

Human cloning is a new and huge scientific discovery. We know very little about it . scientists all over the worlds are looking forward to work in this field as It caught the eyes of people all over the world .

Cloning actually began at the 50th of the past century. And the first organism to try it on was tadpole (baby frog). But the first mammal to clone and the first successful experiment was "Dolly the sheep". Which made a revolution in the cloning world . this happened by taking a cell from the breast of one sheep and combine it with a nucleus-removed egg from another sheep and by this dolly was created.

After that lots and lots of animals were cloned such as: cats, mice, pigs, rabbits and sheep. And not only it is constricted onto animals but also it expanded to the plant world .

This technology is not very common in human and did not take its full potential yet due to some ethical problems which will be discussed later on and some other health related reasons.

In most countries human cloning is banned and researches in this field is the United States the U.S. government doesn't support human cloning and it forbids it. So cloning researches takes place in Asia, Eastern Europe or the Near East. However many researches are being conducted secretly and independently from the government in the U.S.

In Japan for example the government has approved for the researcher to use and produce cloned human embryos, but only for basic researches.