Social Work Essay 代写：人类生长行为与发展
Social Work Essay 代写：人类生长行为与发展
This theory centres on the idea that children need to form secure relationships with other people, such as parents or guardians, as it is a significant contributer to their emotional development. Social bonds and relationships that are made in early childhood are believed to influence an individuals life and can impact upon their well-being to determine their emotional and social stability later in life. Consequently, attachment is seen as an integral component within infants and young childrens lives, as these experiences can shape a persons personality and identity in future years. (WALKER, J and K, CRAWFORD 2010). If these experiences of attachment are negative, and the child does not develop adequate relationships with their caregivers, then this can have detremental consequences on their psychological and emotional development.
The Attachment theory originates from the ideas of John Bowlby who believes that humans are biological predispositioned to seek attachment from others. He proposes that survival is closely related to the ability to possess emotional bonds with other individuals (GREEN 2003). This is because by forming an attachment with an authority figure who is seen as the stronger of the species, this reduces the vulnerability of the individual as it provides increased security and protection from harm posed by potential predators (BOWLBY 1958, cited in LISHMAN 2007). The theory looks at the way that attachment relationships are formed, and the reasons behind their manifestation. Children are seen to form these relationships for reasons such as safety, comfort and to provide guidence. These attachment behaviours, according to learning theorists, are displayed in infancy through talking, laughing and crying. This enables them to persue their basic needs for survival, such as food for nurishment, by their attachment to their mother who is able to support them in fulfilling their needs (WALKER, J and K, CRAWFORD 2010). This initial attachment to caregivers also guides the individuals thoughts, feelings and expectations as they become aware of peoples responses towards them which help them recognise how to behave (WALKER 2009).
There are four assumptions of Bowlby’s attachment theory which attempt to explain his beliefs. The first, is that infants and young children develop emotional ties with individuals early in life, which acts as a biological function and plays an integral part to their survival. The second assumption is that the way a child is treated early in life has a major contributing factor to their future relationships and the way their personality is formed. The third assumption is that attachment behaviour can form an ‘internal working model’ which guide the child’s thoughts, feelings and expectations as a result of the reactions of others towards their behaviour. The final assumption of Bowlby’s attachment theory is that although it is difficult to alter attachment behaviour, it is not impossible, thereofre there is the possibility of alteration at any point in life, both in a positive and negative way (GREEN 2003).