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Social Work Essay 代写:人类生长行为与发展

Social Work Essay 代写:人类生长行为与发展

这一理论中心的想法,孩子需要安全和其他人的关系,如父母或监护人,这对他们的心理发展是一个重要的贡献者。社会纽带和关系,是在早期的童年被认为是影响一个人的生活,可以影响他们的福祉,以确定他们的情感和社会稳定后的生活。因此,附件被看作是婴幼儿和儿童生活中的一个组成部分,这些经验可以塑造一个人的个性和身份在未来几年。(沃克,J和K,克劳福德2010)。如果连接这些经验是负面的,而孩子不发展与他们的照顾者的适当的关系,那么这会对他们的心理和情感的发展有detremental后果。

依恋理论来源于约翰·鲍比的思想认为,人类是生物predispositioned寻求依恋别人。他提出,生存是密切相关的能力,与其他个人的情感纽带(绿色2003)。这是因为通过形成一个权威人物看作是物种的强大的附件,这降低了个体的脆弱性为它提供了增强的安全性和危害的潜在的掠食者所构成的保护(儿童1958,引器2007)。该理论着眼于连接关系形成的方式,以及他们的表现背后的原因。孩子们看到这些关系,如安全,舒适和提供指导。这些依恋行为,根据学习理论家,显示在婴儿期通过说话,笑和哭。这使他们追求他们的基本生存需求,如食物的营养,他们的依恋他们的母亲能够在满足其需求的支持(沃克,J和K,克劳福德2010)。这种最初的依恋照顾者也引导个人的想法,感情和期望,因为他们成为意识到人们对他们的反应,帮助他们认识到如何表现(步行2009)。

有四个假设的鲍尔比的依恋理论,试图解释自己的信仰。首先,是婴幼儿在生命早期发展与个体的情感联系,这是一个生物功能,并对他们的生存起着不可或缺的作用。第二个假设是,一个孩子在生活的早期处理有一个主要的贡献因素,他们未来的关系和他们的个性形成。第三个假设是,附件的行为可以形成一个“内部工作模式”,引导孩子的想法,感情和期望,作为对他们的行为的反应的结果。对鲍尔比的依恋理论的最终的假设是,虽然这是很难改变的依恋行为,这是不可能的,因此在生活中的任何一点改变的可能性,在一个积极的和消极的方式(绿色2003)。

Social Work Essay 代写:人类生长行为与发展

This theory centres on the idea that children need to form secure relationships with other people, such as parents or guardians, as it is a significant contributer to their emotional development. Social bonds and relationships that are made in early childhood are believed to influence an individuals life and can impact upon their well-being to determine their emotional and social stability later in life. Consequently, attachment is seen as an integral component within infants and young childrens lives, as these experiences can shape a persons personality and identity in future years. (WALKER, J and K, CRAWFORD 2010). If these experiences of attachment are negative, and the child does not develop adequate relationships with their caregivers, then this can have detremental consequences on their psychological and emotional development.

The Attachment theory originates from the ideas of John Bowlby who believes that humans are biological predispositioned to seek attachment from others. He proposes that survival is closely related to the ability to possess emotional bonds with other individuals (GREEN 2003). This is because by forming an attachment with an authority figure who is seen as the stronger of the species, this reduces the vulnerability of the individual as it provides increased security and protection from harm posed by potential predators (BOWLBY 1958, cited in LISHMAN 2007). The theory looks at the way that attachment relationships are formed, and the reasons behind their manifestation. Children are seen to form these relationships for reasons such as safety, comfort and to provide guidence. These attachment behaviours, according to learning theorists, are displayed in infancy through talking, laughing and crying. This enables them to persue their basic needs for survival, such as food for nurishment, by their attachment to their mother who is able to support them in fulfilling their needs (WALKER, J and K, CRAWFORD 2010). This initial attachment to caregivers also guides the individuals thoughts, feelings and expectations as they become aware of peoples responses towards them which help them recognise how to behave (WALKER 2009).

There are four assumptions of Bowlby’s attachment theory which attempt to explain his beliefs. The first, is that infants and young children develop emotional ties with individuals early in life, which acts as a biological function and plays an integral part to their survival. The second assumption is that the way a child is treated early in life has a major contributing factor to their future relationships and the way their personality is formed. The third assumption is that attachment behaviour can form an ‘internal working model’ which guide the child’s thoughts, feelings and expectations as a result of the reactions of others towards their behaviour. The final assumption of Bowlby’s attachment theory is that although it is difficult to alter attachment behaviour, it is not impossible, thereofre there is the possibility of alteration at any point in life, both in a positive and negative way (GREEN 2003).

 

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