In this section, the researcher will provide a brief historical introduction of Arabic language, translation and recounts of some studies conducted on equivalence and nonequivalence at the word level especially culture specific concepts. Furthermore, provide reviews of methodology and principles covering the translation theory. This led the researcher focuses on the nonequivalence at the word level, especially culture specific concept which is the main issue of the concerned.
(Chaeless, 1971) shows that Arabic as a big worldly tongue spoken by millions of citizens over the huge area from Morocco to the Persian Gulf and documented in writing for nearly a millennium and a half, offers perplexity range of variation. The breakup of the Arabic language is not permitted by the centrality of text, the Holy Qur’an which embodies officially permitted social and linguistic rules. While (Dalby, 1998 ) reveals that Arabic and English languages belong to different groups and different language families. Arabic is pointed out as a member of the Semitic family of language, English as a member of the Indo-European family.
Arabic is dominant here as official language spoken in more than 20 countries in the Middle East. English is an official language of commonwealth countries.
Translation as part of applied linguistics, the procedure of translating, and the translator used contrast and distinguish different aspects of two languages to find the equivalents. (W.B, 1976)Shows that translation is a universal term referring to the shift of view and ideas from one source language to another target language, are in a printed or verbal form; have recognized orthographies or whether one or two languages are based on symbols, as with a sign language for the deaf.
Translation has been defined by many scholars, and some of them for example (González, 1991) defines translation as the general process of transferring a message from one language to another and also, more specifically to the written form of that process.
(J.Roman, 1959) also points out that translation being the replacement of textual material in one language of equal textual material in another language. He comes up with a very important dissimilarity between three types of written translation: