On the other hand, economic policies, population size, family ties, educational deficiencies, dilapidated infrastructures, lack of social amenities, social strife, political crises, poverty and war have equally been attributed as push factors from these sending countries.
The study of labour migration across international borders especially between developing and the developed countries as well as the increasing growth in the last twenty years has become an important issue in contemporary economic analysis and a potential source of great worry particular for decision makers aside from economist. Inferences have constantly been drawn from various statistical data on its numerous effects (both positive and negative) with particular reference to economic growth, increasing fiscal costs, balance of payment imbalances, welfare and cultural shocks, and the resultant social imbalances of ‘brain drain’ and ‘brain gain’.
The above has equally generated a widespread debate often leading to a high level criticism on the need to stop the high prevalence because of the perceived negative impact on both the receiving and sending countries. Some have argued that the constant influx of workers into the receiving countries if not stopped, will lead to depressed wages of domestic workers, extreme pressure on the available scarce resources and unprecedented rise in unemployment. In the same vein, others have argued about the skill shortages and the resultant increased poverty of particularly the developing countries as a result of ‘brain drain’ they experience.
Counter arguments with empirical evidences have also suggested that ‘brain drain’ should be reconsidered as ‘brain gain’ as the developing countries economic growth indexes, technology as well as improved balance of payments through remittances was largely derivable from human capital exportation. (It was estimated that yearly remittances from migrants worldwide grossed over $400 billion).
This study will be attempting to analyse critically: what is labour migration all about & the reasons behind labour migration. Its recent increasing growth in labour and subsequently proceed to consider empirically the effects of migration on the sending countries.
It is important to make a clear distinction of the following terms to allow for full understanding of the subject matter:
Immigration simply means to relocate into a new environment, or a country, in order to settle down there;
Emigration simply refers to relocating out of one’s own country to another;
Migration on the other hand refers to moving from one place to another for the purposes of performing specific task;
Sending countries refers migrants’ native countries;
Receiving countries refers to countries where the migrants relocate to reside;
Push factors can be described as factors responsible for the migrant’s decision to relocate abroad;
Pull factors can be described as receiving countries features that potentially could be to a migrants’ attraction.
Developed country is “one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment.” (Kofi Annan, 2000)
Developing country is generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being
WHO IS A MIGRANT & WHAT IS LABOUR MIGRATION ALL ABOUT?
The International Labour Organisation describes a ‘migrant worker’ as a “person who migrates from one country to another with a view to being employed otherwise than on his own account” (ILO, 1949 Article 11, Paragraph 1)
The United Nations General Assembly in resolution of December 1990 describes a ‘migrant worker’ as “a person who is to be engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a state of which he or she is not a national”, (UN 1990).