POOR PLANNING POLICIES
Poor demographic policies and non-compliance with policy issues on planning, often leads to an exerted pressure on scarce resources and thus causes great distortion in its efficient allocation. Mostly at times, the resultant effects leads to social strife, war and eventually poverty which forces both the skilled and unskilled work force out of such countries in search of a secure haven.
Geographical distance as well as significantly lower transportation cost between countries often plays a great factor in labour migration especially where the developed country shares a border line with the developing countries. Typical examples are Mexico and the United States as well as Poland and Germany.
Natural disaster such as drought and famine could be responsible for labour migration. Dearth of scientific research causes inadequate preparation in terms of preventing or limiting the effects of future natural disasters and the aftermath effects leaves the country with food shortages, hunger and the population impoverished thereby ‘pushing out’ its citizenry for quest of survival.
Reunion of family members or partners through transnational marriage often leads to work skills being transferred to the receiving countries.
The effects of labour migration could be examined from both the negative and positive perspectives.
The negative being:
Brain drain and loss of expertise
Loss of public investment
Forced slavery overseas
High mortality rate
The positives being:
Foreign direct investments
Foreign aid support
Promotion of trade links
Education, Skill acquisition and knowledge transfers
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The debate of labour migration and its effects on the sending countries continuously open for future research and this essay will not attempt to draw a conclusion on it.
The obvious reason is that, despite significant development in the sending countries, there is a high penchant for migration especially in this era of trade and technology linkages through globalization.
Labour migration can never be stopped even when there is development internally within a country because ‘development does not reduce the impetus for migration, it increases it’ Massey (1988)
30% of Mexico’s scientific and engineering educated population with PhD reside in USA
India ranks amongst the ten largest economies in the world and yet remains an important player in the global supply of professionals and students with over 18000 of its medical doctors living in the UK.
China GDP ranking second in the world after the United States yet emigration from China remains the main desire of its skilled labour.
30% of Ghanaians most educated population reside abroad
Despite Bulgaria’s recent inclusion in the Shengen states agreement, many Bulgarians are still eager to emigrate.
Sri Lanka has a member of every family household working abroad.
South African has over 8000 nurses and midwives working in the UK
50% of foreign students with PhD still reside in the USA after 5 years of qualification.
Rationally, so long as opportunity does exist, migrants will be attracted to such opportunities. However, labour migration should not be seen as a problem which developing countries should analyze solutions for rather they are advised of a more coherent policy for migration and development.
In addition, ‘Developing countries in particular may have a lot to gain in terms of growth, investment, human capital accumulation and poverty reduction if they manage to restructure effectively their economies following emigration and diffuse these benefits throughout the economy’, Katseli et al (2006).
Notably, Philippines recent growth through trade, tourism and investment promotion is derivable directly from its human capital exportation.
Africans’ labour migrants have be credited for assisting in boosting their home countries terms of trade. The strong ties for African food has greatly encouraged farmers in sending countries to set up foreign African shops thereby boosting export earnings for sending countries.
Foreign jobs taken by Tajikistan citizens in Russia and other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) reduced substantially the unemployment rate and boosted internal consumer demand at home.
India is a major force today on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) issues in view of benefits of technology transfer from human capital exportation.
Finally, developing countries should view labour migration as a process of reformation and presumed opportunity than a challenge. The obvious challenge here remains that, decision makers in these countries should seek out preventive measures or alternatively limit inherent political, cultural and social effects of labour migration whilst benefitting immensely from the economic