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Media Essay 代写:行政或常规和关键研究

Media Essay 代写:行政或常规和关键研究

本文试图探讨的问题,引起了研究理论和区分术语“行政”或“常规”和“关键”的研究。它将讨论和对比这两种类型的研究的相似性,同时评估这两种方法的实用性和相关性,它意味着媒体的发展。最后,它会看看不同的传统的媒体研究,并解释他们如何体现“传统”或“关键”的特点。

大众传播研究的历史是一个简短的。在上世纪40年代,当通信与媒体研究是在美利坚合众国(美国),研究主要集中在“不断扩大的社会需求,包括定位的政治和经济利益(基于批判实用主义)和芝加哥学派的社会学”

然而,威尔伯·施拉姆认为,通信研究是定量的,而不是投机”,辩称其从业人员如拉扎斯菲尔德、勒温、拉斯威尔和Hovland(被确定为在美国传播研究的开国元勋)的理论很感兴趣,但在理论上他们可以测试”(哈特,1992,11页)。他认为“忽视关于沟通和文化的特点,芝加哥学派关注的历史”(哈特,1992,第10页)。Schramm坚持认为,他们的行为研究,为媒体和通信的更广泛的社会和文化方面的利益置之不理。施拉姆的兴趣是新闻而不是科学传播研究是美国服务系统在时间而不是挑战它因为被媒体和商业利益的影响。

主流的沟通和媒体的研究未能解决关键的发展,从内部和没有它的界限。它一直在利益的具体类别,体现在通信,是由一个行为科学取向的跨学科研究的一个学术专业化的承诺,但没有任何重大或成功的尝试打破它

Media Essay 代写:行政或常规和关键研究

This essay attempts to look at the issues which gave rise to research theories and distinguish between the terms ‘administrative’ or ‘conventional’ and ‘critical’ research. It will discuss and contrast the similarities of both types of research while evaluating the usefulness and relevance of both approaches and what it meant for the development of the media. Finally, it will look at the different traditions of media research and explain how they manifest either ‘conventional’ or ‘critical’ characteristics.

The history of mass communications research is a short one. In the 1940s, when communication and media studies came about in the United States of America (USA), research focused on ‘the needs of an expanding society, including the positioning of political and economic interests which (was based on the critical pragmatism) and sociology of the Chicago School’ (Hardt, 1992, p. 9).

However, Wilbur Schramm suggested that communications research was ‘quantitative, rather than speculative’ and argued that its practitioners such as Lazarsfeld, Lewin, Laswell and Hovland (who were identified as the founding fathers of communications research in the USA) were ‘deeply interested in theory, but in the theory they can test’ (Hardt, 1992, p. 11). His view ‘ignored the history of concerns about communication and culture that had characterized the Chicago School’ (Hardt, 1992, p.10). Schramm insisted that they were ‘behavioural researchers’ and as such interests in the wider social and cultural aspects of media and communication were left unaddressed. Schramm’s interest was journalistic rather than scientific and communications research is the USA served the system at the time instead of challenging it because of the influence by media and commercial interests.

Mainstream communication and media research had failed to address critical developments from within and without its boundaries. It had remained within specific categories of interests, reflected in an academic specialization in the study of communication that was interdisciplinary by its commitment to a behavioural science orientation, but without any significant or successful attempt to break out of its modiac circle

 

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