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The heart is divided into four chambers which has two inferior intermittent pumps which discharge blood out of the heart called the right and the left ventricles and two superior primer pumps called the right and left atria receiving deoxygenated and oxygenated blood from the body and the lungs respectively. The ventricles are separated from each other by a relatively thick muscle called the interventricular septum but atria are separated from each other by relatively a thinner wall called the interatrial septum as it has lighter workload comparing the ventricles. The right ventricle has thicker walls comparing the left ventricle because it has to pump more blood during systemic circulation. The presence of heart valves prevents the back flow blood and hence ensures that blood flows effectively in one direction. There are two types of valves which are the atrioventricular (AV) valves and the semilunar valves. The AV valves consists of the the tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral) valves that are located on the right and left side of the heart between the ventricles and atria respectively. The semilunar valves on the other hand lie on the bases of aorta and the pulmonary artery. These valves consists of the pulmonary valve and the aortic valve. The tricuspid valve has thread like structures that are connected to tendon like cords called the chordae tendinae. The anatomical structure of the heart and the heart valves is shown in figure 3.


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